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  #61  
Old 26-02-2016, 01:57 PM
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Re: Sexual Health News

Quote:
Originally Posted by Big Sexy View Post
take that post with a grain of salt mate....

i am skeptical abt such news... i remember reading many years ago abt this group of prostitutes from africa being immune to HIV but later got it when they stop the trade..
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  #62  
Old 29-02-2016, 04:36 PM
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Re: Sexual Health News

HPV rates fallen sharply in young women since vaccine introduced
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/306962.php

Since 2006 in the US, routine human papillomavirus vaccination has been recommended for girls aged 11-12 years and also for other young women up to 26 years of age who were not immunized earlier.

now, new research finds that in the 6 years following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine introduction, rates of infection of the four strains targeted by the vaccine have plummeted in teen girls, and they have also fallen significantly in other young women.

The study - from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - is published in the journal Pediatrics.

The authors say the findings extend previous results about the impact of the HPV vaccine in the US and provide the first national evidence of its effect on women in their 20s.

The aim of the HPV vaccination campaign is to protect against cancer. More than 40 types of HPV can infect the genital areas of males and females. These types can also infect the mouth and throat. The virus is transmitted from one person to another during sexual activity.

HPV can cause cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancers in women and cancer of the penis in men. It can also cause anal cancer, cancer of the back of the throat (oropharynx), and genital warts in both men and women.

HPV is very common: the CDC estimate that currently in the US, there are around 80 million people infected with HPV, with 14 million new infections - including among teenagers - occurring every year.

Most people infected with HPV do not know they have it.

The HPV vaccine is recommended for pre-teen males and females aged 11-12 so that they are protected before there is a chance of exposure. The vaccine also produces a more robust immune response if received at this age.

Another reason to give the vaccine to pre-teens is because later on, they are less likely to get regular health checks, thus providing fewer opportunities to receive the vaccine routinely.

HPV vaccine is given in three shots - with the second shot 1 or 2 months after the first, and the third 6 months after the first.
64% reduction in teen girls

For the study, researchers looked for genetic evidence of HPV in cervical/vaginal samples that were self-collected by females aged 14-34 years who took part in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

They compared data from 2,587 females whose samples were collected before the vaccine was introduced (2003-2006) with those of 2,061 females whose samples were collected afterward (2009-2012).

The results showed that the percentage of females who reported receiving at least one dose of HPV vaccine following its introduction ranged from 3.3% of those aged 30-34 years to 51% of those aged 14-19 years.

They also show there was a 64% reduction in prevalence of the four strains of HPV included in the vaccine in teen girls aged 14-19 years and a 34% decrease among young women aged 20-24 years.

The HPV vaccine immunizes against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, the strains thought to cause the most cancer cases. The researchers note that:

Quote:
"There were no statistically significant changes in other HPV type categories that indicate cross-protection."
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  #63  
Old 22-03-2016, 04:57 PM
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Re: Sexual Health News

Herpes virus and EBV could be tackled by heart drug
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/307852.php

Spironolactone, commonly used in cases of heart failure, has surprised scientists by blocking infection by Epstein-Barr virus, in a breakthrough that could help people with a wide variety of herpes-related conditions.

In 1996, Medical Microbiology reported that there were over 100 known herpes viruses, eight of which can normally affect humans.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is transmitted by mouth and causes cold sores. HSV-2 is responsible for genital herpes, causing painful blisters or ulcers in the genital area. HSV-3, or herpes zoster, leads to chicken pox and potentially shingles.

HSV-4, also called Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is responsible for infectious mononucleosis, commonly known as glandular fever or "kissing disease," because it spreads through saliva.

EBV has also been linked to a number of other conditions, including cancers in humans. People who undergo a transplant, or whose immune system is already compromised, are especially at risk of EBV.

According to the authors of the current study, EBV "infects the majority of humans worldwide." The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) call it "one of the most common human viruses in the world." Most people, they say, will have this virus, but often there are no symptoms.
Limited options for treatment of herpes

There is only one class of antiviral medicine to treat herpes viruses, which means there is no alternative in cases of resistance.

Scientists from the University of Utah School of Medicine, led by Dr. Sankar Swaminathan, have been searching for new drugs to treat viral infections. They were screening for drugs that might be effective against the herpes virus through a different mechanism than currently available therapies.

The current drugs work by preventing a virus from replicating DNA, thus blocking a middle step of the viral infection cycle.

Spironolactone (SPR), like existing drugs, was found to block a key step in viral infection that features in all herpes viruses, but a different step than the one targeted by current drugs. It prevented replication of the virus in cells by blocking the so-called SM protein, needed for a late step in the infection cycle.

Based on these findings, the researchers see SPR as a good candidate for development into a new class of anti-herpes drug.

Dr. Swaminathan, who is chief of infectious diseases at University of Utah Health Care and professor of internal medicine, comments:

Quote:
"It's remarkable that a drug we have used safely in the clinic for over 50 years is also an effective EBV inhibitor. It goes to show how basic research can reveal things we would never have found otherwise."
SPR is normally used to treat heart failure through a metabolic mechanism, but in dealing with viral infection, a different pathway appears to be at work.

The authors of the current study found that a drug similar to SPR has a similar ability to treat heart failure but does not affect the development of the herpes virus. These results suggest that the actions of spironolactone are separable.

Since all herpes viruses depend on SM-like proteins to spread infection, the results have broad implications.

The researchers envisage SPR becoming a template for a new class of drug to treat all herpesviruses. They believe it can be modified to work as an antiviral without adverse effects, and that it can help in the fight against drug-resistant infections.
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  #64  
Old 23-03-2016, 06:48 PM
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Re: Sexual Health News

Quote:
Originally Posted by Big Sexy View Post
The HPV vaccine is recommended for pre-teen males
This vaccine for adult males also can be taken
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  #65  
Old 31-03-2016, 12:51 PM
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Re: Sexual Health News

Male birth control: non-hormonal injection could be effective
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/308466.php

Whereas women have several options for long-lasting contraception, men currently have a limited selection available to them. Vasectomy is the only effective long-acting method available for men, but a new, non-hormonal, injectable gel could change the game.

Results of a study testing the effectiveness of the injectable male contraceptive, conducted in rabbits, are published in the journal Basic and Clinical Andrology.

According to the study, both the availability and use of contraceptives has major implications for public health and well-being. Around the world each year, an estimated 85 million unintended pregnancies happen, half of which end in abortion.

There is increasing demand for male contraceptive options. Although it is safe and effective, vasectomy is typically regarded as permanent because its reversal is expensive, difficult and has the chance of being unsuccessful in restoring fertility.

Recently, Medical News Today reported on a birth control pill for men, which is being developed by tweaking the structure of chemical compounds that could potentially be used to inhibit male fertility.

There are, of course, concerns over potential side effects. Though scientists have focused on hormonal approaches to male birth control, the authors of this latest study note that many men prefer a non-hormonal option to avoid side effects and safety risks.

One target that appears to be a good starting point for male contraception is the vas deferens, which is the tube that carries sperm from each testicle.

'No detectable sperm in semen samples'

For their study, the researchers injected the gel - called Vasalgel - into the vas deferens of 12 rabbits. The gel is made of styrene-alt-maleic acid (SMA) that is dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide.

The team tested two different formulations of the gel - either using 100% SMA acid or 80% SMA acid/20% SMA anhydride.

After analyzing the semen of the 12 rabbits, the researchers found that 11 of them were azoospermic in all samples, meaning that they had no detectable sperm in the semen samples.

Although one of the rabbits had a few samples containing small numbers of sperm, he, too, eventually became azoospermic. Furthermore, both formulations were equally effective.

The researchers say the contraceptive effect of the gel lasted during the 12-month study period, and the response of the rabbits' vas deferens "was minimal with characteristics of a normal foreign body response."
Will the gel work in humans?

The way the gel works is that, once it is injected into the vas deferens, it forms a hydrogel, which remains in a soft, gel-like state. This means it is able to flex and adhere to the walls of the vasa deferentia.

Because hydrogels allow many water-soluble molecules to pass through - but not larger structures, such as sperm - this technique could reduce pressure in the sperm storage and production areas, the researchers say.

In the rabbit model, the researchers were able to successfully remove the gel to return the sperm flow and thus restore fertility. However, whether this technique will work in humans remains to be seen. The first clinical trial in men is planned for late 2016.

Commenting on their findings, lead study author Dr. Donal Waller, from the University of Illinois-Chicago, says:

Quote:
"Results from our study in rabbits were even better than expected. Vasalgel produces a very rapid contraceptive effect which lasted throughout the study due to its unique hydrogel properties. These features are important considerations for a contraceptive product to be used in humans."
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  #66  
Old 05-04-2016, 03:45 PM
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Re: Sexual Health News

Sex After Pregnancy: When Can I Resume Intercourse?
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/308480.php

Written by Lori Smith BSN MSN CRNP
Knowledge center
Published: Friday 1 April 2016

Most mothers will agree that the last thing on their mind after having a baby is sex. However, this is not often the case with their partner! On the other hand, some women may be ready to resume sexual intercourse shortly after having a baby. But when is the right time to resume sexual intercourse?

In general, it is recommended that sexual intercourse is avoided for the first 4-6 weeks following a vaginal or cesarean (C-section) delivery; however, it is important to speak with your health care provider before resuming sex.

Most often, especially in cases of a C-section, perineal tear or episiotomy, it is recommended to wait until after you are seen for your 6-week postpartum visit for the green light from a health care provider to resume sexual activity.

Following childbirth, your body is in a healing phase in which bleeding stops, tears heal and the cervix closes. Having intercourse too early, especially within the first two weeks, is not recommended due to a risk of postpartum hemorrhage or uterine infection.

When a woman is ready to resume sexual intercourse following the birth of a baby depends on several factors, including:

Pain levels
Fatigue
Stress
Sex drive
Fear of sex or pregnancy
Vaginal dryness
Postpartum depression.

What will sex after giving birth feel like?

Due to the hormonal changes experienced during the postpartum period, many women experience vaginal dryness, which may continue past the typical 4-6 week timeframe if breastfeeding; this is due to low levels of circulating estrogen.

Breastfeeding can also lower your sex drive. In addition to lower levels of circulating hormones, painful sex may accompany a perineal tear or episiotomy, which can last for several months following the birth of a baby.

Steps that can reduce pain associated with sex after pregnancy include:

Controlling the depth of penetration with varied sexual positions
Increasing vaginal lubrication
Taking pain medication
Emptying the bladder
Taking a warm bath.

Vaginal lubrication such as over-the-counter creams or gels may be useful in relieving the symptoms of vaginal dryness. If you are using barrier method birth control, using a water-based lubricant is recommended to avoid weakening the latex.

Alternatively, oral or manual stimulation may be an option during the healing process. For some people, an appointment with a pelvic floor rehabilitation specialist may be recommended to evaluate and treat painful postpartum sex.

Sex following childbirth may feel different due to decreased vaginal muscle tone and stretching. Typically, this laxity in vaginal tone is temporary, however, and is affected by factors such as genetics, the size of the baby, the number of previous births and the use of Kegel exercises.

Instructions on how to do Kegel exercises can be accessed here.

Hormones can cause a variety of interesting - and, at times, inconvenient - symptoms. For example, during sexual intercourse, your breasts may leak milk due to the hormonal response to orgasm. Try pumping before having sex to reduce this symptom.

Birth control options following childbirth

Having a reliable method of birth control following delivery is important to prevent an unintended pregnancy. If you are interested in immediate contraception, you can consider barrier options such as condoms or progestin-only contraceptives (Depo-Provera or the mini-pill).

The timing for a copper or hormonal intrauterine device or utilizing a fitted barrier method of contraception such as a diaphragm or cervical cap should be discussed with your health care provider.

If you are interested in combination birth control methods containing both estrogen and progesterone (such as pills or a vaginal ring), speak with your health care provider to see if this option is right for you.

Learn more about birth control methods, including hormonal contraception, barrier methods and implanted devices.

The timing when a woman and her partner resume sexual intercourse following the birth of a child is ultimately a personal decision. Women should speak with their partner and health care team about any concerns that may be present.
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  #67  
Old 10-04-2016, 07:45 AM
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Re: Sexual Health News

A new drug may help relieve menopausal vulvar and vaginal atrophy symptoms
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/308624.php

A new low-dose vaginal estrogen capsule may help relieve symptoms of menopausal vulvar and vaginal atrophy, including dyspareunia (pain during sex), new industry-sponsored research reports. The study results were presented in a late-breaking poster Saturday, April 2, at ENDO 2016, the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society, in Boston.

Vulvar and vaginal atrophy affects roughly 50 percent - 32 million - of postmenopausal women in the United States. This widespread condition involves decreased estrogenization of vaginal tissue and can cause painful sexual activity and urination, as well as vaginal dryness, itching and irritation.

"This study provides a new easy-to-use option for vulvar and vaginal atrophy, for which only about 7 percent of women are currently treated with a prescription product. Health care providers and their patients may soon have an additional safe and effective product for a very untreated condition," said study consultant and lead author Ginger D. Constantine, MD, president and CEO of EndoRheum Consultants, LLC, in Malvern, Pennsylvania.

TX-004HR, containing the estrogen 17β-estradiol, is currently an investigational drug for use in clinical trials and is not yet available to the general public.

TherapeuticsMD, the manufacturer of TX-004HR, conducted the double-blind, randomized, phase 3 REJOICE clinical trial comparing 3 doses (4, 10, and 25 micrograms) of TX-004HR with placebo in 764 postmenopausal women aged 40 through 75 in 105 medical centers in the United States and Canada.

The women in the study received either vaginal softgel capsules containing one of the three doses of TX-004HR or placebo, once daily for two weeks, then twice weekly for 10 weeks.

Within two weeks, at all doses, vaginal cells and vaginal pH significantly improved, compared with placebo. Superficial and parabasal vaginal cell improvement was found at baseline and at two, six, eight and 12 weeks, and at every time point the return to premenopausal cell ratios was significant. Vaginal pH returned to premenopausal levels as well. Dyspareunia, vaginal dryness and irritation, significantly improved.

TX-004HR did not, on average, increase blood levels of estradiol outside the normal postmenopausal range.

The treatment was well tolerated. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported, and no clinically significant differences in any adverse events or treatment-related serious adverse events were found between TX-004HR and placebo.

TherapeuticsMD plans to use the results of this study in its new drug application for approval of TX004HR to the FDA that will be submitted during the first half of 2016.
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  #68  
Old 10-05-2016, 06:39 AM
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Re: Sexual Health News

What Are Pheromones? Do Humans Have Pheromones?
Written by Christian Nordqvist

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/232635.php

A pheromone is a chemical an animal produces which changes the behavior of another animal of the same species (animals include insects).

Some describe pheromones as behavior-altering agents. Many people do not know that pheromones trigger other behaviors in the animal of the same species, apart from sexual behavior.

Pheromones, unlike most other hormones are ectohormones - they act outside the body of the individual that is secreting them - they impact a behavior on another individual. Hormones usually only affect the individual that is secreting them.

This article will take a brief look at pheromones and whether they can be found in humans.

Quote:

Fast facts on pheromones

Here are some key points about pheromones. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.

Pheromones are similar to hormones but work outside of the body
Pheromones induce activity in other individuals, such as sexual arousal
The McClintock effect refers to women's menstrual cycles combining, perhaps in response to pheromones
Some chemicals have been investigated for pheromone actions in humans but evidence is weak
Virtually all insects use pheromones to communicate
Most alleged pheromone products that can be purchased online are ineffective
Gustav Jäger was the first to propose the idea of pheromones - he called them anthropines
There are four types of pheromone: releaser, primer, signaler and modulator.
What do pheromones do?
Pheromones can be secreted to trigger many types of behaviors, including:

Alarm
To follow a food trail
Sexual arousal
To tell other female insects to lay their eggs elsewhere (epideictic pheromones)
To respect a territory
To bond (mother-baby)
To back off.

It is believed that the first pheromone was identified in 1953. Bombykol is secreted by female moths and is designed to attract males. The pheromone signal can travel enormous distances, even at low concentrations.

Experts say that the pheromone system of insects is much easier to understand than that of mammals, which do not have simple stereotyped insect behavior.

It is believed that mammals detect pheromones through an organ in the nose called the VNO (Vomeronasal Organ), or Jacobson's organ, and connects to the hypothalamus in the brain.

The VNO in humans consists of just pits that probably do not do anything; interestingly the VNO is clearly present in the fetus but atrophies before birth. If humans do respond to hormones, most likely they use their normal olfactory system.

Pheromones are commonly used in insect control. They can be used as bait to attract males into a trap, prevent them from mating, or to disorient them

Do humans have pheromones?

According to thousands of websites that promise sexual conquests if you buy their pills, human pheromones exist - bear in mind that their aim is to get you to buy their products. However, most proper, well-controlled scientific studies have failed to show any compelling evidence

Gustav Jäger (1832-1917), a German doctor and hygienist is thought to be the first scientist to put forward the idea of human pheromones. He called them anthropines and said that they were lipophilic compounds associated with skin and follicles that mark the individual signature of human odors. Lipophilic compounds are those that tend to combine with, or are capable of dissolving in lipids.

Researchers at the University of Chicago claimed that they managed to link the synchronization of women's menstrual cycles to unconscious odor cues. The head researcher was called Martha McClintock, hence the coined term "the McClintock effect."

When exposing a group of women to a whiff of sweat from other women, their menstrual cycles either accelerated or slowed down, depending on when during the menstrual cycle the sweat was collected - before, during or after ovulation.

The scientists said that the pheromone collected before ovulation shortened the ovarian cycle, while the pheromone collected during ovulation lengthened it. Even so, recent analyses of McClintock's study and methodology have questioned its validity.

Recent research into pheromones


A Swedish study found that lesbians react differently to AND (progesterone derivative 4,16-androstadien-3-one) compared with heterosexual women. AND is ten times more abundant in human male sweat than female sweat.

A study, published in Respirology in January 2016, showed that AND caused swelling in the erectile tissue of female noses. This was taken as evidence that AND might be a functioning pheromone.1

Another contender for the role of human pheromone is androstadienone. There is some evidence that androstadienone, a component of male sweat, increases attraction, affects mood and cortisol levels and activates brain areas linked to social cognition. One study found that androstadienone increased cooperative behavior in males.2

Androstenone, secreted only by males, has also been tested for its potential role as a pheromone. According to some studies, androstenone increases a woman's mood, especially if she is presented with it close to the time of ovulation.3

Overall, evidence for the existence of pheromones in humans is weak but it can not be ruled out entirely. If human pheromones are ever found, the likelihood is that their effects are incredibly subtle.

Types of pheromone
There are four principal kinds of pheromones:

Releaser pheromones - they elicit an immediate response, the response is rapid and reliable. They are usually linked to sexual attraction.
Primer pheromones - these take longer to get a response. They can, for example, influence the development or reproduction physiology, including menstrual cycles in females, puberty, and the success or failure of pregnancy. They can alter hormone levels. In some mammals, scientists found that females who had become pregnant and were exposed to primer pheromones from another male, could spontaneously abort the fetus.
Signaler pheromones - these provide information. They may help the mother to recognize her newborn by scent (fathers cannot usually do this). Signaler pheromones give out our genetic odor print.
Modulator pheromones - they can either alter or synchronize bodily functions. Usually found in sweat. In animal experiments, scientists found that when placed on the upper lip of females, they became less tense and more relaxed. Modulator hormones may also affect a female's monthly cycle.
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  #69  
Old 02-12-2016, 03:15 PM
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Re: Sexual Health News

High School Students Recreate $750 HIV Pill for $2

https://ptcommunity.com/news/2016120...750-hiv-pill-2
Martin Shkreli takes a slap in the face

A group of Australian high school students has recreated the key ingredients of Daraprim––the toxoplasmosis drug that the infamous Martin Shkreli acquired in 2015 and then jacked up the price of a single pill by 5,000%––for a mere $2, according to a news report from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The 11 students, all 17 years of age, were able to synthesize the product’s active ingredient, pyrimethamine, in the school laboratory.

The boys produced 3.7 g of pyrimethamine for $20. In the United States, the same quantity would cost up to $110,000. In most countries, including Australia and Britain, the drug retails for less than $1.50 per pill.

The students set out on their experiment as a means of showing how Daraprim can be produced inexpensively and to underscore the inflated cost of drugs in the U.S. Prior to Shkreli’s acquisition, Daraprim cost about $18 per pill. After the acquisition, the retail price skyrocketed to $750.

Shkreli was arrested in December 2015 on allegations of securities fraud. He subsequently stepped down as the head of Turing Pharmaceuticals. His trial is set for June 26, 2017.

The students posted their laboratory work online with the Open Source Malaria (OSM) group, a project that uses open-source principles to find a cure for malaria. One of the students’ advisers, Alice Williamson, a postdoctoral teaching fellow at the University of Sydney, works with the OSM.

Williamson told the Washington Post that the high costs of drugs are not always justifiable. She said that if high school students can develop the same drug for a small cost, “how can you get away with charging $750 for an essential medicine to so many people who are already vulnerable?”

Last year, compound drug maker Imprimis Pharmaceuticals offered a compound of pyrimethamine and leucovorin as a low-cost alternative to Daraprim. At the time, Imprimis said its combination treatment would have a price tag of $99 for 100 tablets––slightly less than $1 per pill.
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Old 02-12-2016, 03:19 PM
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Re: Sexual Health News

Australian boys recreate life-saving drug
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-australia-38153254

The man who sparked outrage last year by hiking the price of a life-saving drug may have met his match in some Australian schoolboys.

US executive Martin Shkreli became a symbol of greed when he raised the price of a tablet of Daraprim from $13.50 (£11) to $750.

Now, Sydney school students have recreated the drug's key ingredient for just $20.

Daraprim is an anti-parasitic drug used by malaria and Aids patients.

Martin Shkreli: 'The most hated man in America'

The Sydney Grammar boys, all 17, synthesised the active ingredient, pyrimethamine, in their school science laboratory.

"It wasn't terribly hard but that's really the point, I think, because we're high school students," one boy, Charles Jameson, told the BBC.

The students produced 3.7 grams of pyrimethamine for $20. In the US, the same quantity would cost up to $110,000.

In most countries, including Australia and Britain, the drug retails for less than $1.50 per pill.



The boys said they conducted the year-long experiment to highlight the drug's inflated cost in the US.

"It seems totally unjustified and ethically wrong," student James Wood said. "It's a life-saving drug and so many people can't afford it."

Supervising teacher Dr Malcolm Binns said: "Everyone is very happy and pleased with the result. All the boys think it's the most amazing thing."

Daraprim is used to treat to treat toxoplasmosis, an infection common in people with Aids.

Mr Shkreli, also known as "Pharma Bro", was chief executive of Turing Pharmaceuticals when it acquired exclusive rights to Daraprim.

Its decision to increase the cost by more than 5,000% in August last year drew international condemnation. Mr Shkreli has argued the Daraprim price increase was warranted because the drug is highly specialised.

But the firm eventually agreed to lower the price to something more affordable.
'Real monetary value'

Dr Alice Williamson, a University of Sydney research chemist, supported the boys' project through online platform Open Source Malaria.

"They've transformed starter material that's worth pennies into something that has a real monetary value in the States," she told the BBC.

"If you can obtain it cheaply in schools, then there's no excuse for charging that much money for a drug. Especially from people that really need it and probably can't afford to pay for it."

Dr Williamson called the pricing in the US "ludicrous".

Mr Shkreli has since dismissed the schoolboys' achievement, saying that making a small quantity of the drug is easy.

"I should use high school kids to make my medicines," he posted on Twitter.

"Why buy my equipment when I can use the lab's for free?! And those teachers who told them what to do, they'll work for free, right?"

The controversial pharmaceutical boss was arrested in December on allegations of securities fraud. He subsequently stepped down as the head of Turing. His trial is set for 26 June, 2017.
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  #71  
Old 08-03-2017, 08:40 AM
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Re: Sexual Health News

Commercial brand of mouthwash can help kill off gonorrhea in the mouth
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http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/314897.php

Published: Thursday 22 December 2016

A commercial brand of mouthwash that is readily available from supermarkets and pharmacies can help curb the growth of the bacteria responsible for gonorrhoea, reveals preliminary research published online in the journal Sexually Transmitted Infections.

Daily rinsing and gargling with the product might be a cheap and easy way of helping to control the spread of the infection, suggest the researchers.

New cases of gonorrhoea among men are on the rise in many countries amid declining condom use, with the bulk of cases among gay/bisexual men, say the researchers.

Rising rates of gonorrhoea heighten the risk of the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of Neisseria gonnorhoeae, the bacteria responsible for the infection, making the need for a preventive measure that doesn't rely on condoms even more urgent, they say.

As far back as 1879, and before the advent of antibiotics, the manufacturer of Listerine, a commercial brand of mouthwash, claimed that it could be used to cure gonorrhoea. But no published research has tested out this claim.

In a bid to rectify this, the researchers assessed whether Listerine could curb the growth of N. gonorrhoeae in laboratory tests and in sexually active gay/bisexual men in a clinical trial.

For the laboratory tests, different dilutions (up to 1:32) of Listerine Cool Mint and Total Care, both of which contain 21.6% alcohol, were applied to cultures of N. gonorrhoeae to see which of any of them might curb growth of the bacteria. By way of a comparison, a salt water (saline) solution was similarly applied to an identical set of cultures.

Listerine at dilutions of up to 1 in 4, applied for 1 minute, significantly reduced the number of N. gonorrhoeae on the culture plates, whereas the saline solution did not.

The clinical trial involved 196 gay/bisexual men who had previously tested positive for gonorrhoea in their mouths/throat, and who were returning for treatment at one sexual health clinic in Melbourne, Australia, between May 2015 and February 2016.

Almost a third (30%; 58) tested positive for the bacteria in their throat on the return visit.

Thirty three of these men were randomly assigned to a rinse and gargle with Listerine and 25 of them to a rinse and gargle with the saline solution.

After rinsing and gargling for 1 minute, the proportion of viable gonorrhoea in the throat was 52% among the men using Listerine compared with 84% among those using saline.

And the men using Listerine were 80% less likely to test positive for gonorrhoea in their throat five minutes after gargling than were the men using the saline solution.

The researchers admit that the monitoring period was short, so the possibility that the effects of the mouthwash might be short-lived can't be ruled out. But the laboratory test results would suggest otherwise, they say.

This research is preliminary, so a larger trial is currently under way to confirm these results and see whether the use of mouthwash could curb the spread of gonorrhoea, they say.

"If daily use of mouthwash was shown to reduce the duration of untreated infection and/or reduce the probability of acquisition of N. gonorrhoeae, then this readily available, condom-less, and low cost intervention may have very significant public health implications in the control of gonorrhoea in [men who have sex with men]," write the researchers.
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  #72  
Old 08-03-2017, 11:08 AM
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Re: Sexual Health News

Medication may provide greater virus suppression, reduction in lesions for patients with genital herpes

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/314914.php

In a study appearing in JAMA, Anna Wald, M.D., M.P.H., of the University of Washington & Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, and colleagues compared the medications pritelivir and valacyclovir for reducing genital herpes simplex virus shedding and lesions in persons with recurrent genital herpes.

The treatment for genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections relies on the nucleoside analogues acyclovir, valacyclovir, or famciclovir administered either for each recurrence or daily to prevent recurrences. In addition, valacyclovir, when taken daily has been shown to reduce the risk of HSV-2 transmission to susceptible partners. However, the protection is only partial (approximately 50 percent), likely because these drugs neither completely inhibit genital viral shedding (when the virus is active and potentially transmissible to sexual partners). Alternative agents to treat HSV infections are needed.

For this crossover study, 91 participants (adults with 4 to 9 annual genital HSV-2 recurrences) were randomly assigned, 45 to receive pritelivir first, a different class of medication for genital herpes, and 46 to receive valacyclovir first. Participants took the first drug for 28 days followed by 28 days of washout before taking the second drug for 28 days. Throughout treatment, the participants collected genital swabs 4 times daily for HSV testing. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration placed the trial on clinical hold based on findings in a concurrent nonclinical toxicity study, and the sponsor terminated the study.

Of the 91 randomized participants, 56 had completed both treatment periods at the time of the study's termination. In intent-to-treat analyses, HSV shedding was detected in 2.4 percent of swabs during pritelivir treatment compared with 5.3 percent during valacyclovir treatment. Genital lesions were present on 1.9 percent of days in the pritelivir group vs 3.9 percent in the valacyclovir group. The frequency of shedding episodes did not differ by group. Quantity of virus shed was decreased significantly during pritelivir treatment compared with valacyclovir treatment. The frequency of pain was reduced in the pritelivir group compared to the valacyclovir group.

Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 62 percent of participants in the pritelivir group and 69 percent of participants in the valacyclovir group.

"Further research is needed to assess longer-term efficacy and safety," the authors write.

This study was supported by AiCuris GmbH & Co KG.
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  #73  
Old 08-03-2017, 12:55 PM
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Re: Sexual Health News

Re-emergence of syphilis traced to pandemic strain cluster
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/314568.php

Over the last few decades, an age-old infectious disease has been re-emerging globally: Syphilis. Using techniques to analyze low levels of DNA, an international research team headed by the University of Zurich has now shown that all syphilis strains from modern patient samples share a common ancestor from the 1700s. Furthermore, their research demonstrates that strains dominating infections today originate from a pandemic cluster that emerged after 1950, and these strains share a worrying trait: Resistance to the second-line antibiotic azithromycin.

Syphilis has plagued humankind for over 500 years. After the first reported outbreaks struck Europe in 1495, the disease spread rapidly to other continents and swelled to a global pandemic. When treatment with the antibiotic penicillin became available in the mid-twentieth century, infection rates started to decrease dramatically. Strikingly, however, infection with the bacteria Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) has been re-emerging globally in the last few decades; more than 10 million cases are reported annually. Yet the reason for the resurgence of this sexually transmitted infection remains poorly understood.
New techniques to analyze an old disease

According to the authors of the paper, little is known about the patterns of genetic diversity in current infections or the evolutionary origins of the disease. Because clinical samples from syphilis patients only contain low quantities of treponemal DNA and the pathogen is difficult to culture in the laboratory, researchers from the University of Zurich decided in 2013 to apply DNA capture and whole-genome sequencing techniques, as used by colleagues at the University of Tübingen, to ancient DNA samples. The team collected 70 clinical and laboratory samples of syphilis, yaws, and bejel infections from 13 countries spread across the globe. Like syphilis bacteria, the closely related subspecies Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) and Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN), which cause yaws and bejel, are transmitted through skin contact and show similar clinical manifestations.

By using genome-wide data, the researchers were able to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree showing a clear separation between the TPA lineage and the TPE/TEN lineage. "There have been many questions regarding the origin of syphilis since its appearance on the world stage 500 years ago. By combining an evolutionary and an epidemiological approach, we were able to decipher the genetic relation between strains infecting individuals today, and also trace the emergence of a pandemic cluster with high frequency of antibiotic resistance", says Homayoun C. Bagheri, former professor at the UZH Institute for Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies.
Current syphilis infections predominantly due to resistant strains from a pandemic cluster

The genomic analyses show the emergence of a pandemic cluster named SS14-Ω, which is present in contemporary infections around the globe and distinct from the cluster comprising the well-studied Nichols reference strain. "Our findings highlight the need to study more extensively the predominant strain type in the contemporary epidemic", states Natasha Arora, researcher at the Zurich Institute of Forensic Medicine and first author of the study published in Nature Microbiology.

An evolutionary finding of epidemiological relevance is that the SS14-Ω cluster originated from a strain ancestor in the mid-20th century - after the discovery of antibiotics. The worrying aspect of this pandemic cluster is its high resistance to azithromycin, a second-line drug that is widely used to treat sexually transmitted infections. Natasha Arora adds: "The good news is that, so far, no Treponema strains have been detected that are resistant to penicillin, the first-line antibiotic for syphilis treatment."

Co-author Philipp Bosshard from the University Hospital Zurich is continuing to collect Swiss patient samples in order to further study the clinical aspects of the work. The researchers are convinced that this type of analysis will open new opportunities to develop a comprehensive understanding of the epidemiology of syphilis - a devastating disease that persists to this day, despite the availability of treatment.
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  #74  
Old 09-03-2017, 07:11 AM
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Re: Sexual Health News

New study busts the myth that contraceptives kill libido
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/314851.php


The contraceptive pill is one of the most popular means of contraception among women of reproductive age. Recent research examines its effects on female sexual desire

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported in 2012 that 62 percent of women of reproductive age were using a means of contraception. Of these, 28 percent - or 10.6 million women in the United States - were using the pill, making it the most popular method of contraception.

Despite the common belief that contraceptive pills decrease a woman's libido, the evidence supporting this has been mixed and inconclusive.

A comprehensive review of existing research reports that the effects of hormonal contraceptives on female sexual desire are conflicting and "not well studied," with only a small percentage of women reporting either an increase or a decrease in their libido.

Given this lack of evidence, researchers from the University of Kentucky and Indiana University have set out to examine the impact of oral hormonal contraceptive use on female sexual desire.

The results have been published in The Journal of Sexual Medicine.

Examining the effect of different contraceptives on the female libido

Authors of the new study point out that previous research has been inconsistent in the methodology used. For instance, some studies did not differentiate between the types of contraceptives, while others did not use non-hormonal comparison groups.

Additionally, previous studies did not account for the relationship context relating to contraceptive use and the sexual behavior of partners, these authors note.

However, researchers led by Dr. Kristen Mark carried out two separate studies. Both studies investigated the impact of different kinds of contraceptives on sexual desire in women. The studies also examined sexual desire in the men who were partnered with contraceptive-using women.

The first study looked at how contraceptive use affected heterosexual partners in relationships of different lengths, while the second study investigated this impact on long-term relationships.

Using the Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), researchers examined two kinds of sexual desire: solitary and dyadic. These describe the libido a woman has on her own and with a partner, respectively.

The SDI is a 14-item questionnaire designed to measure sexual desire in cognitive terms, unlike other measurement tools that use behavioral methods.

As for the types of contraceptive, Dr. Mark and team grouped these into three categories: oral hormonal, other hormonal, and non-hormonal.

Overall, researchers examined sexual desire in more than 900 people.

The pill 'does not kill desire'


The study showed that the type of contraceptive used affected solitary and dyadic sexual desire significantly.

Women using non-hormonal contraceptives reported higher solitary libido than women on hormonal contraceptives. But women using oral hormonal contraceptives had higher levels of dyadic sexual desire than women on non-hormonal contraceptives.

The sexual desire of male partners did not seem to change with the type of contraceptive their partners used.

When scientists accounted for contextual information such as relationship length and age, however, the differences were no longer significant.

This suggests that contextual factors have a more considerable impact on sexual desire than the type of contraceptive used.

Sexual desire was more strongly predicted by the length and age of the relationship than by the type of contraceptive used.

Furthermore, when examining couples, researchers saw no association between contraceptive type and solitary or dyadic sexual desire in men and women.

Dr. Mark emphasizes the need to "bust the myth" that contraceptive pills can decrease libido.

Quote:
"Sometimes women are looking for something to explain changes in their sexual desire, which is not fixed throughout their life. The message that hormonal pills decrease desire is really prevalent. In my undergrad classes my students often say they hear the pill makes you not want sex, 'so what's the point?' Our findings are clear: the pill does not kill desire. This research helps to bust those myths and hopefully eventually get rid of this common cultural script in our society."
Dr. Kristen Mark
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  #75  
Old 09-03-2017, 07:15 AM
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Re: Sexual Health News

Novel penile implant offers hope for men with erectile dysfunction

Although implants and medication are available for individuals who have lost erectile function, there is currently no one-size-fits-all treatment. However, using an innovative heat-activated memory metal, researchers recently tested a new device and the results are promising.

Although technology related to the penis can draw childish sniggers, it is a serious business.

For instance, losing one's erectile function through cancer or injury can be a life-altering event.

Erectile dysfunction is not uncommon; an estimated 40 percent of men aged 40-70 have some level of erectile dysfunction.

Of these 40 percent, an estimated one-third do not respond to drugs such as Viagra.

Brian Le, from the Department of Urology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, recently investigated new technology that may, eventually, provide a reliable alternative.

Le joined forces with Alberto Colombo and Kevin McKenna at Northwestern University, IL, and Kevin McVary at Southern Illinois University. Le says that: "It's a survivorship issue - restoring function can help people feel whole in their bodies again."

Current treatments for erectile dysfunction

Beyond Viagra and similar drugs, there are two interventions that can restore some level of function.

The best solution on the market is an inflatable implant. However, due to the multiple components - including a reservoir of water and a pump - the surgery can be complicated. The implanted pump can also be awkward for the user, with the potential to cause medical complications, including water leakage from the internal reservoir.

The simplest device currently in use is a malleable implant. It is relatively cheap and easy to install, making it more popular in developing countries than in the United States. There are, however, drawbacks to this method. These include the fact that it provides a permanently erect penis, that it can change shape during use, and that it has the potential to put pressure on surrounding areas, therefore damaging tissue.

The inflatable pump technology was first designed in the 1970s and, since then, little progress has been made. Because neither of these interventions are ideal, and because the potential marketplace is large, discovering alternatives could be lucrative. For these reasons, Boston Scientific are supporting Le's innovative work in this field.

New penile implant technology

Le's solution uses an exoskeleton made from Nitinol (a nickel-titanium alloy). Nitinol is already useful in endovascular surgery thanks to its superelastic properties.

The new implant is a heat-activated shape memory alloy, meaning that it has the ability to "remember" its original shape. At body temperature, the implant remains flaccid, but when heated, it unfurls to the expanded, elongated shape that it "remembers."

A remote-controlled device is being designed that, when waved over the penis, will heat the Nitinol to just above body temperature, causing it to expand in length and girth.

This brief video shows the prosthesis in action:


Le and colleagues set out to test the Nitinol structure's performance against other available devices. Mechanical tests mimicked those used by other penile prosthesis manufacturers; they included testing whether the structure buckled, penile lateral deviation, and the penis' ability to recover its original shape.

The results are published in January's edition of the journal Urology.

Testing showed that the Nitinol shape memory alloy has similar mechanical characteristics to inflatable penile prosthetics. They also showed that the new device became more pliable when deactivated and could be repeatedly used to attain an erection.

These early results are promising:

Quote:
"We're hoping that, with a better device, a better patient experience, and a simpler surgery, more urologists would perform this operation, and more patients would want to try the device."

Brian Le
Although the device is still in the early testing phase, Le hopes that, if milestones continue to be reached in a timely fashion, the device could be on the market in 5-10 years
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